According to the ICCL (Irish Council for Civil Liberties) report, data on European Internet users is shared on average 376 times a day via Real Time Bidding , an online advertising management technique. In the case of US citizens, the average increases to 747.
The ICCL, therefore, is currently engaged in legal action with the digital advertising industry and the Data Protection Commission over a very large data breach. According to the Irish Council for Civil Liberties, in fact, no one has ever consented to this practice.
In detail, user data is shared between brokers who act on behalf of those who place advertisements while others read them (the brands involved are also unrelated to the matter). This illegitimate sharing of data includes information of the device on which the page is loaded, details on the geolocation of the device and other information, including previously visited sites.
Finally, personally identifiable information would not be included , although activists confirm that the overall volume of data effectively represents an invasion of privacy.